
Marine Science 


MSCI 398  Marine Science Seminar Fall and Spring (13) Staff
Seminar in interdisciplinary topics in Marine Science. The course topic, prerequisites, and instructors will vary from year to year.
This course may be repeated for credit for different topics. Depending on the topic, a specific section may be crosslisted with GEOL 407 (Special Topics in Geology) and/or ENSP 249 (Environmental Challenges: Topics) . 


MSCI 401A  Fundamentals of Marine Science, Physical Oceanography Spring (2) Gong Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330 , and MATH 111 or permission of instructor
This course provides an introduction to the various types and scales of motion in the ocean, the global heat budget, major water masses, and processes controlling distributions of temperature and salinity. Discussions on phenomena associated with water motion will include global circulation, winddriven circulation in ocean basins, tides, coastal upwelling, storm surge, waves, turbulence, and circulation in estuaries. Underlying dynamics governing water motion will be presented, elucidating the role of the rotation of the earth. The El Nino/La Nina oscillation will be examined as a key example of largescale oceanatmosphere interactions. MSCI 401A requires coregistration with the relevant MSCI 401R. 


MSCI 401B  Fundamentals of Marine Science, Chemical Oceanography Fall (2) Smith, J., Shadwick Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330 , and CHEM 103 or permission of instructor
This course presents an overview of the chemistry of estuaries and the ocean including chemical processes that occur in marine sediments and at the air/sea interface. Discussion topics will include the chemical properties of seawater, chemical equilibrium and kinetics, the seawater carbonate system and ocean acidification, the global and oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles, ion speciation, trace metals, and nutrients, sediment diagenesis, and fundamentals of radioisotope and stable isotope biogeochemistry. Interdisciplinary applications are emphasized. MSCI 401B requires coregistration with the relevant MSCI 401R. 


MSCI 401C  Fundamentals of Marine Geology Fall (2) Hein Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330
This course provides an introduction to the major topics of marine geology without expecting the student to have a background in geology. The course addresses the age and internal structure of the earth, the processes of plate tectonics including the formation of oceanic crust, seamounts, hydrothermal vents, the characteristics and classification of sediments and the distribution of sediments in the deep sea. Also addressed is the interrelationships among and importance of paleoceanography, climate change, and sealevel change, and the processes and characteristics of various marine, estuarine, and coastal sedimentary environments. The course includes discussion of various types of field equipment and logistics and of some economic and societal implications. MSCI 401C requires coregistration with the relevant MSCI 401R. 


MSCI 401D  Fundamentals of Marine Science, Biological Oceanography Fall (2) Smith, W. Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330 , and BIOL 220 or permission of instructor
This course examines the biology and ecology of marine organisms and how they interact with their environment. Topics include the organisms and their behavior, distribution, and underlying physiology; effects of biology on elemental and nutrient cycles and visa versa; and ecosystem structure and ecological interactions. An interdisciplinary approach will be taken, as biology both depends on and influences ocean chemistry, physics, geology, and climate. The course will emphasize open ocean, pelagic systems, but will include many examples from coastal and estuarine systems, as well as shallow and deepsea benthic systems. MSCI 401D requires coregistration with the relevant MSCI 401R. 


MSCI 401E  Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, Toxicology, and Pathobiology Fall (2) Unger, Vogelbein Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330 , and BIOL 220 and BIOL 225 , and CHEM 103
This course emphasizes ongoing and emerging environmental concerns in the Chesapeake Bay and world ocean. Lectures will address basic concepts and mechanism of contaminant chemistry and toxicology, infectious and noninfectious diseases in aquatic organisms. Case histories will be used to illustrate sources, fate and effects of anthropogenic chemical contaminants, and the important role of environmental change on disease in marine and estuarine ecosystems. MSCI 401E requires coregistration with the relevant MSCI 401R. 


MSCI 401F  Fundamentals of Marine Fisheries Science Spring, even years (3) Graves Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 or GEOL 330 , and BIOL 220
This lecture course will introduce the principles and techniques of fishery science. Lecture topics will include the theory and impacts of fishing, description and status of international, North American and regional fisheries, fisheries oceanography, recruitment processes, singlespecies and ecosystembased approaches fisheries management, and the goals and problems of sustaining an openaccess common pool resource. 


MSCI 401R  Fundamentals of Marine Science Recitation Fall or Spring (1) Staff Corequisite(s): MSCI 401A or MSCI 401B or MSCI 401C or MSCI 401D or MSCI 401E
MSCI 401R can be repeated once, and the title will change depending on whether the recitation section is biological or physical. The Biological topic reinforces and augments lecture material presented in MSCI 401D and E through discussion, problem sets, and review in advance of tests and quizzes. It is required for all students enrolled in MSCI 401 D or E. The Physical Science topic reinforces and augments lecture material presented in MSCI 401A, B and C through discussion, problem sets, and review in advance of tests and quizzes. It is required for all students enrolled in MSCI 401 A, B or C. MSCI 401R may be taken twice to fulfill the Fundamentals of Marine Sciences requirement, once with each topic. 


MSCI 404  Microbial Processes in a Changing Coastal Environment Fall (2) Anderson, Reece Prerequisite(s): BIOL 230 or (BIOL 220 and BIOL 225 ) or (BIOL 220 and MSCI 330 )
The course will address current topics and societal concerns in coastal and estuarine systems including microbial responses to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, nutrient enrichment, and roles of bivalvedominated systems, marshes, seagrasses, groundwater, and photic sediments on microbial nutrient cycling. 


MSCI 460  Oceans and Climate. Fall (2) Smith, W. Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or BIOL 230 (formerly 330), or GEOL 330 .
This course will examine how physical, geological, chemical and biological processes in the oceans together affect the planet's climate in different time and spatial scales. Abrupt climate change caused by recent human activities will also be discussed. 


MSCI 464  Marine Conservation Biology Spring, odd years (2) Lipcius Prerequisite(s): MSCI 330 or GEOL 330 or BIOL 230 or BIOL 318
Application of multidisciplinary scientific principles to the protection, enhancement and restoration of marine biodiversity (geneticecosystem) threatened by habitat degradation, overexploitation, invasive species, and global change. Practical application through case studies and seminars by outside experts in marine conservation. 


MSCI 490  Research in Marine Science Fall, Spring, or Summer (13) Staff
This course is designed to permit students (particularly marine science minors) to engage in independent research. Students will work closely with a faculty member as an advisor. Each student will be expected to conduct research and prepare aresearch paper appropriate for the number of credits. This course may be repeated for credit. 


MSCI 497  Problems in Marine Science Fall, Spring, or Summer (14) Staff
This is the avenue through which supervised projects are selected to suit the need of the upper level undergraduate student. Projects are chosen in consultation with the student's supervising professor and the instructor. Credit hours depend upon the difficulty of the project and must be arranged with the instructor in advance of registration. 


MSCI 498  Special Topics in Marine Science Fall, Spring, or Summer (13) Staff
This is the avenue through which subjects not covered in other formal courses are offered. These courses are offered on an occasional basis as demand warrants. Seminars can be repeated for credit if the topic is different. Seminars can be repeated for credit if the topic is different. 
Mathematics 


MATH 100  Critical Themes in Mathematics, Historical and Modern Fall and Spring (4) Staff (College 100)
The courses will explore ideas central to the evolution of mathematics and its application. Students will actively participate in the development of ideas explored in the courses. Some courses will require good highschool mathematics background. Sample topics might include Limits and Infinity, Linearity, Coding and Cryptanalysis, Geometry and Physics of Archimedes. 


MATH 103  Precalculus Mathematics Fall (3)
A study of the real number system, sets, functions, graphs, equations, inequalities and systems of equations, followed by a study of the trigonometric functions and their properties. This course is designed only for students intending to take Math 108 or Math 111, and whose background is deficient in algebra and trigonometry. Juniors and seniors must obtain permission from the instructor to enroll. This course may not be applied toward either the minor or major in mathematics or the satisfaction of GER requirements. A student may not receive credit for this course after successfully completing a Mathematics course numbered higher than 107, with the exception of Math 150. 


MATH 104  The Mathematics of Powered Flight Fall and Spring (3) (College 200, NQR, MATH, GER 1)
Applications of elementary mathematics to airplane flight. Wind and its effect on airport design and aircraft operation. Maps and map projections. Magnetic variation and compass navigation. Static air pressure: buoyancy and the altimeter. Use of a flight simulator will illustrate the mathematical analysis of certain aircraft instruments. Not open to students who have credit for a Mathematics course numbered above 210. (This course is anchored in the NQR domain, and also considers aspects of the CSI domain.) 


MATH 106  Elementary Probability and Statistics Fall and Spring (3) (MATH, GER 1)
Introduction to basic concepts and procedures of probability and statistics including descriptive statistics, probability, classical distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression, in the context of practical applications to data analysis from other disciplines. Not open to students who have successfully completed a mathematics course numbered above 210. 


MATH 108  Brief Calculus with Applications Fall and Spring (4) (MATH, GER 1)
An introduction to the calculus of polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions, including some multivariable calculus, with applications in business, social and life sciences. Algebra proficiency required. Maple or Matlab may be used in the course. Students may not receive credit for more than one of Math 108, 111, and 131, and may not receive credit for Math 108 after receiving credit for any Mathematics course numbered higher than 108, with the exception of Math 150. To use Math 108 as a prerequisite for Math 112 or 132, students need approval of the department chair. 


MATH 110  Topics in Mathematics Fall and Spring (3)
An introduction to mathematical thought with topics not routinely covered in existing courses. Material may be chosen from calculus, probability, statistics and various other areas of pure and applied mathematics. 


MATH 111  Calculus I Fall and Spring (4) (MATH, GER 1, NQR)
Standard functions (linear, polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic) and their graphs. Tangents, derivatives, the definite integral and the fundamental theorem. Formulas for differentiation. Applications to physics, chemistry, geometry and economics. Requires graphing calculator. Concurrent enrollment in Math 111 calculus lab required. Students may not receive credit for more than one of Math 108, 111, and 131. 


MATH 112  Calculus II Fall and Spring (4) Prerequisite(s): MATH 111 or MATH 131 . (MATH, GER 1)
Methods of integration. Applications of the integral to geometry, chemistry, physics and economics. Slope fields and the qualitative behavior of solutions to differential equations. Approximations: sequences, series, and Taylor series. Concurrent enrollment in Math 112 Maple or Matlab calculus lab required. Students may not receive credits for more than one of Math 112 and 132. 


MATH 131  Calculus I for Life Sciences Fall (4) (MATH, GER 1)
Mathematical topics parallel to those in Math 111. Applications in Math 131 focus on issues of importance in the Life Sciences, e.g., mathematical models of population dynamics, ecology, physiology, genetics, neurology. Students may not receive credit for more than one of Math 108, 111, and 131. 


MATH 132  Calculus II for Life Sciences Spring (4) Prerequisite(s): MATH 111 or MATH 131 . (MATH, GER 1)
Mathematical topics parallel those in Math112. Applications in this course focus on issues of importance in the Life Sciences, mathematical models of population dynamics, ecology, physiology, and epidemiology. Students may not receive credit for both Math 112 and Math 132. 


MATH 210  Linearity Fall (4) Johnson. Prerequisite(s): MATH 112
Linear equations, dimension, linear transformations and their eigenvalues. Quadratic forms and matrix factorization. An introduction to research problems will include work in MATLAB and the typesetting language LATEX. Note: Students may not take both Math 210 and Math 211 for credit. 


MATH 211  Linear Algebra Fall and Spring (3,3) Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: MATH 112 or MATH 132 .
Linear equations, matrices, determinants, vector spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues, orthogonality. Optional topics include least squares problems, matrix factorization, applications. A computer lab using the software package Matlab may accompany the class. Note: Students may not take both Math 210 and Math 211 for credit. 


MATH 212  Introduction to Multivariable Calculus Fall and Spring (3,3) Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: MATH 112 or MATH 132 .
Functions of several variables, surfaces in threespace, vectors, techniques of partial differentiation and multiple integration with applications. MAPLE or Matlab will be used in this course. Students may not receive credit for both Math 212 and 213. 


MATH 213  Multivariable Calculus for Science and Mathematics Fall and Spring (4,4) Prerequisite(s): Prerequisite: MATH 112 or MATH 132 .
Covers all Math 212 material plus other vector calculus topics (including Gauss' and Stokes' theorems). Students may not receive credit for both Math 212 and MATH 213. Math 213 may replace Math 212 as a prerequisite and is particularly recommended for science and mathematics students. 


MATH 214  Foundations of Mathematics Fall and Spring (3,3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 112 or MATH 132 .
Fundamentals of advanced mathematics: Propositional logic, quantifiers and methods of proof; naive set theory including mathematical induction, relations, orders, functions, and countability. 


MATH 300  Mathematical Sciences Writing Fall and Spring (1) Staff Prerequisite(s): MATH 214
Students will develop their mathematical writing skills in a term written project. Sources for topice include the history of mathematics, research conducted by the student, or topics from an upper division course that the student has taken or is currently taking. Fulfills the major writing requirement. 


MATH 302  Ordinary Differential Equations Fall and Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ).
Firstorder separable, linear, and nonlinear differential equations. Firstorder systems and forced secondorder linear equations. Systems of linear equations and linearization. Numerical methods, bifurcations, and qualitative analysis. Applications to biology, chemistry, economics, physics, and social sciences. 


MATH 307  Abstract Algebra Fall and Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and MATH 214 .
Groups, rings, fields, isomorphisms; polynomials. Additional topics chosen from group theory and ring theory, as time permits. 


MATH 309  Intermediate Linear Algebra Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and MATH 214 .
Complex numbers; inner product spaces; adjoints of linear transformations; projections; unitary transformations. Spectral theorem for normal, Hermitian and unitary transformations. Polar and singularvalue decompositions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors; the Jordan canonical form. Bilinear and quadratic forms; Sylvester's Law of Inertia. Dual spaces: linear functionals, biorthogonal systems, annihilators. Tensors and tensor products. 


MATH 311  Elementary Analysis Fall and Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and MATH 214 .
An introduction to the theory of real variables, the topology of the real line, convergence and uniform convergence, limits and continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. 


MATH 316  Euclidean and nonEuclidean Geometry with Applications to Art Spring (3) Bolotnikov (College 200, NQR)
Euclidean Geometry: Plane transformations and inversive geometry; projective Geometry and perspective; hyperbokic and spherical geometries. Work of da Vinci, D:urer, and Escher will be considered. (This course is anchored in the NQR domain, and also considers aspects of the ALV domain.) 


MATH 323  Operations Research: Deterministic Models Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 211 or MATH 210 .
An introduction to deterministic Operations Research techniques and applications. Topics include search algorithms, simplex search for linear programs, duality and sensitivity analysis for linear programs, shortest path problems, network models and discrete optimization. 


MATH 332  Graph Theory and its Applications Spring (3) Yu Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) or MATH 214 (College 200, NQR, MATH)
This is an introductory course about graph theory and its applications. It covers graphtheoretic concepts such as paths, Eulerian circuits, trees, distance, matchings, connectivity, network flows, colorings, planarity, and spanning cycles. It will also apply graph theory concepts in the analysis of social networks, and in the applications of natural and social sciences. (This course is anchored in the NQR domain, and also considers aspects of the CSI domain.) 


MATH 345  Introduction to Mathematical Biology Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 211
An introduction to developing, simulating, and analyzing models to answer biological questions. Mathematical topics may include matrix models, nonlinear difference and differential equations, and stochastic models. Biological topics may include ecology, epidemiology, evolution, molecular biology, and physiology. 


MATH 351  Probability and Statistics for Scientists Spring and Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 112 or MATH 132 .
Basic concepts in probability and statistical inference. Topics include: probability laws, counting techniques, discrete and continuous random variables, probability and cumulative distribution functions, sampling distributions, central limit theorem, point estimation, confidence intervals and one and twosample tests of hypotheses. Mathematics majors are encouraged to take the more theoretical courses Math 451 and Math 452. Math 351 cannot not be taken concurrently with Math 451, nor after receiving credit for Math 451. 


MATH 352  Statistical Data Analysis Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 351 or MATH 451
Concepts in statistical data analysis. Topics include: simple and multiple linear regression, nonlinear regression, experimental design, nonparametric statistics and the use of statistical software. Other selected topics for statistical data analysis in order to provide a more indepth exposure to the practice of statistics. 


MATH 356  Random Walks in Biology Fall or Spring (3) Shaw Prerequisite(s): (MATH 111 or MATH 131 ) and BIOL 220 . Prereq/Corequisite(s): BIOL 225
This course introduces random processes in biological systems. It focuses on how biological processes are inherently stochastic and driven by a combination of energetic and entropic factors. Topics include diffusion, cell motility, molecular motors, ion channels, and extinction in populations. (Crosslisted with APSC 456 and BIOL 356 .) 


MATH 380  Topics in Mathematics Fall and Spring (13) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ).
A study of 300level mathematical topics not covered by existing courses. Topics may be pure or applied. Course may be repeated for credit with permission of instructor. 


MATH 400  Mathematical Connections Fall or Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): At least 3 Math courses numbered higher than 300, at least one of which must be Math 307, 311, or at the 400level (or permission of instructor) (College 400)
This course gives a guide through the research process in mathematical sciences. Students will choose a topic on which to research throughout the semester. Students will give several presentations, give feedback on others' presentations, and will turn in a final paper.
Math 400 is taken during the senior year and satisfies the College 400 requirement. Mathematical maturity is needed and is typically indicated by having completed at least 3 Math courses numbered higher than 300, at least one of which must be 307, 311, or at the 400level. Otherwise, the course requires permission of the instructor to enroll.



MATH 403  Intermediate Analysis Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 311 .
Sequences and series of functions; analysis in metric spaces and normed linear spaces; general integration and differentiation theory. 


MATH 405  Complex Analysis Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 311 .
The complex plane, analytic functions, Cauchy Integral Theorem and the calculus of residues. Taylor and Laurent series, analytic continuation. 


MATH 408  Advanced Linear Algebra Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and MATH 214 .
Eigenvalues, singular values, matrix factorizations, canonical forms, vector and matrix norms; positive definite, hermitian, unitary and nonnegative matrices. 


MATH 410  Special Topics in Mathematics Fall and Spring (13)
A treatment of topics of interest not routinely covered by existing courses. Material may be chosen from topology, algebra, differential equations and various other areas of pure and applied mathematics. This course may be repeated for credit with permission of the instructor. 


MATH 412  Introduction to Number Theory Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 214 .
An elementary course in the theory of integers, divisibility and prime numbers, a study of Diophantine equations, congruences, numbertheoretic functions, decimal expansion of rational numbers and quadratic residues. 


MATH 413  Introduction to Numerical Analysis I Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and CSCI 141 and MATH 214 .
A discussion of the mathematical theory underlying selected numerical methods and the application of those methods to problems of practical importance. Computer programs are used to facilitate calculations and illustrate analytical results. The topics covered are: linear systems of equations, sensitivity analysis, leastsquares problems, the singular value decomposition, and eigenvalue problems. Students planning to take 414 are encouraged to take 413 first. 


MATH 414  Introduction to Numerical Analysis II Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and CSCI 141 and MATH 214 .
A discussion of the mathematical theory underlying selected numerical methods and the application of those methods to problems of practical importance. Computer programs are used to facilitate calculations and illustrate analytical results. The topics covered are: nonlinear equations, interpolation and approximation, numerical integration, and numerical methods for the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations. Students planning to take 414 are encouraged to take 413 first. 


MATH 416  Topics in Geometry Fall of evennumbered years (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and MATH 214 .
A treatment of topics selected from Euclidean geometry, nonEuclidean geometry, projective geometry, finite geometry, differential geometry or algebraic geometry. 


MATH 417  Vector Calculus for Scientists Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and MATH 302 .
Directional derivatives, differential forms and the Poincare lemma. Vector bundles, contact forms and their application to ordinary and partial differential equations. Applications to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. 


MATH 424  Operations Research: Stochastic Models Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 451 .
A survey of probabilistic operations research models and applications. Topics include stochastic processes, Markov chains, queueing theory and applications, Markovian decision processes, inventory theory and decision analysis. 


MATH 426  Topology Fall of oddnumbered years (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 311 .
A study of topological spaces, metric spaces, continuity, product spaces, compactness, connectedness and convergence. As time permits, additional topics may be chosen from homotopy theory, covering spaces, manifolds and surfaces, or other topics in algebraic or set theoretic topology. 


MATH 428  Functional Analysis Spring of oddnumbered years (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 311 .
Introduction to the geometry of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, compact operators, spectral theory of compact selfadjoint operators, integral operators and other applications. 


MATH 430  Abstract Algebra II Spring of oddnumbered years (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 307 .
The theory of groups, rings, and fields. Topics may include the fundamental theorem of Abelian groups, Sylow's theorem, field extensions, and Galois theory. 


MATH 432  Combinatorics Spring of evennumbered years (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and MATH 214 .
A study of combinatorial theory and applications to practical problems. Topics include: graph theory, graphical algorithms, enumeration principles, inclusionexclusion principle, recurrence relations, and generating functions. Optional topics: Polya counting principle, combinatorial designs, coding, Boolean algebra, and switching functions. 


MATH 441  Ordinary Differential Equations II Fall (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 302 .
Linear systems of ODEs. Nonlinear systems; dynamical systems, existence/uniqueness of solutions; phase plane analysis; bifurcation; PoincareBendixson theory. Applications in biology, circuit theory, and mechanics. Discrete dynamical systems. 


MATH 442  Partial Differential Equations Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 302 .
An introduction to partial differential equations. Waves, diffusion, and boundary value problems; Fourier analysis; harmonic functions; Green's function and Green's identity. Introduction to numerical methods for approximating solutions. 


MATH 451  Probability Fall and Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): (MATH 211 or MATH 210 ) and (MATH 212 or MATH 213 ) and MATH 214 .
Concepts in probability (formerly MATH 401). Topics include: probability laws, counting techniques, discrete and continuous random variables, probability and cumulative distribution functions, marginal and conditional probability distributions, moment generating functions, transformations of random variables, multivariate transformations, order statistics, sampling distributions and the central limit theorem. Math 451 cannot be taken concurrently with Math 351. 


MATH 452  Mathematical Statistics Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 451
Concepts in statistical inference. Topics include: point and interval estimation, consistency, convergence in distribution, sufficient statistics, minimum variance unbiased estimators, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation, small and largesample hypothesis tests, uniformly most powerful tests and likelihood ratio tests. Math 452 cannot be taken concurrently with Math 351. (formerly MATH 402) 


MATH 459  Topics in Statistics Fall and Spring (13) Prerequisite(s): Consent of instructor.
Statistical topics not covered in other courses. Possible topics include: linear models, nonparametric statistics, multivariate analysis, computationally intensive methods. This course may be repeated for credit as topics change. 


MATH 490  Seminar Fall and Spring (3) Prerequisite(s): MATH 214 .
Sections of this course will treat a single narrow topic. Possible areas of interest include linear algebra, operator theory, applied analysis, combinatorial theory, operations research, statistics, history of mathematics, mathematical pedagogy and computational mathematics. Students will present written and oral work for discussion in class. May be repeated with permission. 


MATH 495  Honors Fall, Spring (3)
Students admitted to Honors study in mathematics will be enrolled in this course during both semesters of their senior year. The course comprises: (a) supervised research in the student's special area of interest; (b) presentation by April 15 of an Honors thesis; and (c) satisfactory performance in a comprehensive oral examination in the field of the student's major interest. Note: For College provisions governing the Admission to Honors, see catalog section titled Honors and Special Programs. 


MATH 496  Honors Fall, Spring (3)
Students admitted to Honors study in mathematics will be enrolled in this course during both semesters of their senior year. The course comprises: (a) supervised research in the student's special area of interest; (b) presentation by April 15 of an Honors thesis; and (c) satisfactory performance in a comprehensive oral examination in the field of the student's major interest. Note: For College provisions governing the Admission to Honors, see catalog section titled Honors and Special Programs. 
Medieval and Renaissance Studies 


MREN 201  Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Studies Spring (3) Staff (College 200, ALV)
An introduction to key texts, and scholarly approaches to those sources, between 300 CE and 1600 CE in western Europe. The course is interdisciplinary, with attention to history, literature, art, and music. (This course is anchored in the ALV domain, and also considers aspects of the CSI domain.) 


MREN 351  Special Topics in the Middle Ages Fall and Spring (34) Staff
Exploration of a particular topic in the Middle Ages. Course may be repeated if topic differs. 


MREN 352  Special Topics in the Renaissance Fall and Spring (34) Staff
Exploration of a particular topic in the Renaissance. Course may be repeated if topic differs. 
Military Science 


MLSC 101  Leadership and Personal Development Fall (1) Staff
Introduces students to issues and competencies that are central to a commissioned officer's responsibilities. These initial lessons establish a framework for understanding officership, leadership, and Army values. Additionally, the semester addresses life skills' including fitness and time management. The MLSC 101 course is designed to support recruiting and retention of cadets by giving them accurate insight into the Army Profession and the officer's role in the Army. 


MLSC 102  Introduction to Tactical Leadership Spring (1) Staff
MLSC 102 overviews leadership fundamentals such as setting direction, problemsolving, listening, presenting briefs, providing feedback, and using effective writing skills. You will explore dimensions of leadership values, attributes, skills, and actions in the context of practical, handson, and interactive exercises. 


MLSC 103  MS I Leadership Laboratory Fall/Spring (0) Staff
Taken with MLSC 101 and MLSC 102 . Presents basic leadership skills in practical situations. Introduces standard Army equipment, marksmanship, orienteering, and small unit tactics, and functioning as a member of a team or squad. Additional fees apply. See the class schedule for details and amounts. 


MLSC 201  Innovative Team Leadership Fall (1) Staff
This course explores the dimensions of creative and innovative tactical leadership strategies and styles by examining team dynamics and two historical leadership theories that form the basis of the Army leadership framework. Aspects of personal motivation and team building are practiced planning, executing and assessing team exercises and participating in leadership labs. The focus continues to build on developing knowledge of the leadership values and attributes through understanding Army rank, structure, and duties as well as broadening knowledge of land navigation and squad tactics. Case studies will provide a tangible context for learning the Soldier's Creed and Warrior Ethos as they apply in the contemporary operating environment. 


MLSC 202  Foundations of Tactical Leadership Spring (1) Staff
This course examines the challenges of leading tactical teams in the complex contemporary operating environment (COE). This course highlights dimensions of terrain analysis, patrolling, and operation orders. Continued study of the theoretical basis of the Army leadership framework explores the dynamics of adaptive leadership in the context of military operations. MLSC 202 provides a smooth transition into MLSC 301. Cadets develop greater self awareness as they assess their own leadership styles and practice communication and team building skills. COE case studies give insight into the importance and practice of teamwork and tactics in realworld scenarios. 


MLSC 203  MS II Leadership Laboratory Fall/Spring (0) Staff
Taken with MLSC 201 and MLSC 202 . Develops intermediate leadership skills by placing cadets in small unit leadership roles in practical situations. Emphasizes acquisition of intermediate individual soldier skills and tactical theory. Advanced Courses These courses are designed to prepare juniors and seniors who have agreed to seek a commission as officers in the United States Army. Freshmen and sophomores may not take the Advanced Courses. Additional fees apply. See the class schedule for details and amounts. 


MLSC 301  Adaptive Team Leadership Fall (2) Staff Prerequisite(s): MLSC 101 , MLSC 102 , MLSC 201 , MLSC 202 or equivalent, and contract status in ROTC
You are challenged to study, practice, and evaluate adaptive team leadership skills as you are presented with the demands of the ROTC Leader Development and Assessment Course (LDAC). Challenging scenarios related to small unit tactical operations are used to develop selfawareness and critical thinking skills. You will receive systematic and specific feedback on their leadership abilities. 


MLSC 302  Leadership in Changing Environments Spring (2) Staff Prerequisite(s): MLSC 301 or consent of department and contract status in ROTC
You will be challenged to study, practice, and evaluate adaptive leadership skills as you are presented with the demands of the ROTC Leader Development Assessment Course (LDAC). Challenging scenarios related to small unit tactical operations are used to develop selfawareness and critical thinking skills. You will receive systematic and specific feedback on your leadership abilities. Leadership Lab concentrates on general military subjects directed toward the reinforcement of military skills and the development of new skills required for the ROTC Leader Development Assessment Course (LDAC). 


MLSC 303  MS III Leadership Laboratory Fall/Spring (0) Staff
Taken with MLSC 301 and MLSC 302 . Develops advanced leadership skills by requiring cadets to train and lead units of 10 to 40 fellow cadets. Includes intensive study of Army equipment, techniques and operational doctrine to achieve advanced proficiency and preparation for attending the Leader Development and Assessment Course. Additional fees apply. See the class schedule for details and amounts. 


MLSC 401  Developing Adaptive Leaders Fall (2) Staff Prerequisite(s): MLSC 302
MLSC 401 develops student proficiency in planning, executing, and assessing complex operations, functioning as a member of a staff, and providing performance feedback to subordinates. You are given situational opportunities to assess risk, make ethical decisions, and lead fellow ROTC cadets. Lessons on military justice and personnel processes prepare you to make the transition to becoming an Army officer. During your MSL IV year, you will lead cadets at lower levels. Both your classroom and battalion leadership experiences are designed to prepare you for your first unit of assignment. You will identify responsibilities of key staff, coordinate staff roles, and use battalion operations situations to each, train, and develop subordinates. 


MLSC 402  Leadership in a Complex World Spring (2) Staff Prerequisite(s): MLSC 302
MLSC 402 explores the dynamics of leading in the complex situations of current military operations in the contemporary operating environment (COE). You will examine differences in customs and courtesies, military law, principles of war, and rules of engagement in the face of international terrorism. You also explore aspects of interacting with nongovernment organizations, civilians on the battlefield, and host nation support. The course places significant emphasis on preparing you for BOLC and your first unit of assignment. It uses case studies, scenarios, and "What Now, Lieutenant?" exercises to prepare you to face the complex ethical and practical demands of leading as a commissioned officer in the United States Army. This semester you will: Explore Military Professional Ethics and ethical decision making facing an Officer, Gain practical experience in Cadet Battalion Leadership roles, Demonstrate personal skills in operations and communications, Evaluate and develop MSL III small unit leaders and examine issues of force protection in the COE, Prepare for the transition to a career as an Army Officer. 


MLSC 403  MS IV Leadership Laboratory Fall/Spring (0) Staff
Taken with MLSC 401 and MLSC 402 . Develops advanced leadership and management expertise in the evaluation of subordinates, performance counseling, mentoring and development of programs of training for units of 100 or more members. Additional fees apply. See the class schedule for details and amounts. 


MLSC 404  Independent Study in Military Science Fall or Spring (1) Staff
This course provides ROTC cadets who have completed their Advance Course program the opportunity to conduct detailed research and independent study on a current problem or topic associated with the military. Program of study will be arranged individually with a faculty advisor; admission by consent of the chair of the department. This course may be repeated as there is no duplication of topic 
Modern Languages and Literatures 


MDLL 150  First Year Seminar Fall or Spring (4) Staff (C150)
An exploration of a specific topic in Modern Languages. A grade of C or better fulfills the COLL 150 requirement. Although topics vary, the courses emphasize academic writing skills, reading and analysis of texts, and discussion. Course may be repeated for credit if topic varies 


MDLL 498  Washington Program Internship Fall and Spring (4)
This course combines an internship experience in Washington, D.C. with individual research supervised by the Washington Program instructor and results in a substantial assignment. Only students already accepted into the Washington Program are eligible to enroll. 
Music 


MUSC E03  Wind Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Staff (ACTV, GER 6)
The Wind Ensemble is a large performing ensemble composed of woodwind, brass, and percussion instrumentalists that performs the finest wind literature from 16th century to the present day. Both chamber music and large ensemble works are rehearsed and performed. The Wind Ensemble performs several concerts per semester both on and off campus. Nonmajors welcome. By audition. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E04  Concert Choir Fall and Spring (1) Armstrong (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E05  Women's Chorus Fall and Spring (1) Bartlett (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E06  Symphony Orchestra Fall and Spring (1) Grandis (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E07  Botetourt Chamber Singers Fall and Spring (1) Bartlett (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E08  Jazz Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Beckner (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E09  Jazz Combo Fall and Spring (1) Simon (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E10  Brass Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) DuBeau (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E11  Woodwind Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Carlson (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E12  String Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Cary (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E13  Mixed Ensemble: Gallery Players Fall and Spring (1) Via (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E14  Percussion Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Lindberg (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E15  Classical Guitar Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Olbrych (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E17  Early Music Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Staff (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E18  Middle Eastern Music Ensemble Fall and Spring (as available) (1) Rasmussen (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E19  Opera Workshop Fall and Spring (1) Fletcher (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 


MUSC E20  Saxophone Ensemble Fall and Spring (1) Nesbit (ACTV, GER 6)
Although students may take as many credits as they wish of ensemble courses, a maximum of 14 credits may be applied toward the 120 credits required for a degree by those not majoring in Music. All music ensembles may be repeated for credit 

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